We might not see the sharp effects and results of time clearly but we can always feel them. Humanity has always developed and changed over history and our new forms of life are created. Although modern technology age has made some things easier, it also brought increasing challenges. One of them is obesity which is a problem that cannot be solved with diets, exercise or even surgical treatment. In this age in which time is valuable, increasing incorrect eating habits cause increasing fat tissue and negatively impact life expectancy.
We hope you enjoy reading this article that we prepared for you….
What is Obesity?
Obesity is also known and commonly used as being overweight. Morbid obese terms which are another common use lead to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes with excessive fat accumulation and fatty body and these conditions might lead to cardiovascular diseases like heart failure. World Health Organisation introduces the term body mass index and classified excess fat accumulation that can damage the health. Excess accumulation of the fat that comes from the food negatively impacts our physical and mental health. Being overweight has various negative impacts with excessive fat and permanent weight.
All food consumed more than we need are stored in fat tissue. Fat tissue is not only storage but also a hormone segregating source. These segregations can increase the appetite, worsen obesity and increase satiety limits. Excessive fat accumulation and increased waist measurements lead to morbid obesity. This would could vital dangers such as KOAH, sleep apnoea, type 2 diabetes, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure and even to a heart attack. Insulin resistance can cause cardiovascular problems. Early measurements to lose weight will prevent these vital diseases.
Obese individuals have a higher risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart attack, heart failure, sleep apnoea, sleeping disorders, shortness of breath, heartburn, depression, menstrual irregularities, joint problems, polycystic over syndrome, gallbladder stone, brain diseases, breast cancer and prostate cancer diseases than individuals with normal weight. Insulin resistance causes diabetes and oestrogen resistance to lead to polycystic over syndrome. In this case, we can answer what is obesity question as an important public health problem with associated diseases.
Causes of Obesity
Let’s go back to centuries ago where body weight was not important. Let’s think about the first human. Those periods that we lived by hunting, escaping to be a hunt, hiding, fighting; those ages in which humans did not care for their waist measurement… Our ancestors consumed various proteins, minerals and vitamins in natural food. Thus, they did not have any obesity or excess weight problem. Actually, they did not know that they were dieting or doing sports which are linked with a healthy life in today’s world. But in the recent years, we have realised that new life conditions have led us to see being the terms like overweight, various chronical diseases, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, type two diabetes, diet, sport etc. more frequently. Excess fat, waist measurement, permanent weight, aesthetic concerns that are caused by these turn into a balls-up that needs to be treated.
As the living conditions changed, our eating habits are changing; over the long run, overweighed and unhappy individuals around the world continue their unhealthy life. What s obesity really? Why it is accepted as a disease that needs to be treated?
Association conditions such as increasing incorrect eating habits with busy work tempo, excessive greasy food consumption, artificial food with additives, immobile life, increased fat tissue due to various medication and treatment applications, insulin resistance in obese people have led this diseases to become a common problem. As the long-term treatment cost for obesity or associated diabetes risk and high cost for healthy living increased, such increasing costs have led institutions such as the World Health Organisation to make decisions to prevent obesity.
question about treatment and new treatment approach that prevent obesity started to be introduced. Now, obesity is considered a disease on its own. Obesity is an important public health problem have set sectors in obesity treatment into motion and these companies have turned into million-dollar companies. How is obesity treated, how is the treatment applied question has become one of the most profitable questions? General surgical and surgical treatment approaches, robotic surgery, laparoscopic surgery technologies have pushed all fields to research not only in cholecystostomy but in a weight loss of obese individuals with high body mass index.
Morbid obesity is a disease that needs to be treated. Well, how is it treated? At this point, various general surgical treatment methods are applied to overweight individuals who cannot have results with diet and sport.
With the advancement in technology, surgical treatment surgeries in long-term effective weight loss have been discovered. Special surgical materials are manufactured for certain organs. New fields like robotic surgery are created to patients who cannot benefit from nutritional planning and diet treatment. Robotic surgery started to be used for surgeries to prevent obesity. Bariatric surgeries operated by experienced surgeons in well-established centres have similar risks to other laparoscopic surgeries like gallbladder operations. In these surgeries, materials approved by the World Health Organisation and other health institutions and safe for human health are used.
Obesity Surgery Methods
Gastric surgeries play an important role in long-term permanent weight loss on contract to risky and temporary weight loss methods such as a gastric balloon or vertical banded gastroplasty. Some of these are sleeve gastrectomy, gastric bypass and mini-gastric bypass surgeries. While risky and temporary weight-loss surgeries like a gastric balloon and vertical banded gastroplasty are no longer preferred, gastric bypass that was common in the past is also becoming old. SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY also is known as a gastric sleeve as a long-term harmless treatment of obesity as an important public health problem is preferred by general surgery specialists. In this surgery, a large stomach is scaled down to ensure faster satiety with less food. As a result, satiety managed by the hormones and brain is adjusted. Thus, patients can get rid of chronic diseases (blood sugar, high blood pressure, chest problems) with effective weight loss. After bariatric surgery, obese individuals (body mass index over 30) have decreased risk of diseases like an individual with normal weight. Today, sleeve gastrectomy surgery is commonly operated and this has become an important surgery and an effective method to treat various diseases. There are certain criteria to have these surgeries. These criteria are set by the World Health Organisation, American Bariatric Surgeons Association and other institutions and these criteria might change over time. If we look at the other techniques:
Gastric Balloon: This is a foreign material called gastric balloon inserted into the stomach. This balloon is blown to cover the one-third of the stomach. This way, the food will be imitated to ensure eating less. This is a temporary solution. After a certain period, the gastric balloon must be removed. When the balloon is removed, patients might gain more weight than before.
Vertical banded gastroplasty: This is like a silicon ring wrapped around the stomach. Silicon ring has a connection from the stomach to the skin and the ring can be loosened or tightened from this connection. This ring squeezes the stomach for early satiety. It has a high risk to rupture the stomach. Since it is a foreign substance for the body, it must be removed after some time. In the removal process, the ring might damage the stomach as there is adhesion. Today, this method is almost never preferred.
Gastric bypass: In this method, the upper half of the stomach is divided and some part of the small bowel is dispensed and re-connected to the stomach. In a gastric bypass, some part of the small intestine is excluded to accelerate digestion and to have less calorie in the body without completing the digestion. This was the most common and popular method. Today, this surgery might be preferred as sleeve gastrectomy revision or as a second operation for patients who gain weight. Since this is the most popular methods, many countries only have this operation. Compared to sleeve gastrectomy, patients might need to use additional vitamins in the rest of their lives. Intestine absorption order is changed. Since the majority of the important food cannot be absorbed, patients might look unhealthy. Also, they have high reflux complaints.
Obesity that occurs in incorrect eating and diet applications must be evaluated for risk conditions and body mass index (BMI) classification must be made to select the appropriate treatment approach for the individual.
Morbid obesity is body mass index higher than 40 or body mass index higher than 35 with associated diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure. These individuals will observe the benefits of bariatric surgery due to existing risks. Bariatric surgery is a highly effective method for individuals who have not experienced any benefits form nutritional planning and diet to treat overweight, high blood pressure, diabetes, respiratory problems, fatty liver, metabolic problems, incorrect nutrition, vascular diseases etc.
You can calculate your body mass index by dividing your weight to the square of your height. For example, the body mass index of a 1.70m height and 120 kg is calculated as:
120 / 1.70×1.70 = 41.5
In short, obesity is now accepted as a treatable disease in surgical ways. If you need any help, you can contact us from our contact section.
MD. Tufan Ergenç
Bariatric Surgery and Metabolic Surgery
|BODY MASS INDEX||CLASS|
|Below 18.5 kg/m2||Thin|
|25 – 29,9 kg/m2||Overweight|
|30 – 39,9 kg/m2||Obese|
|Above 40 kg/m2||Morbid obese|